An Introduction to NTFS
(New Technology File System)
Copyright©2018 by Daniel B. Sedory
(NOT to be reproduced in any form without Permission of the Author !)
We would caution anyone who needs accurate data concerning exactly what happens under a specific OS
or how data is in fact stored, to not only compare multiple sources, but also consult data from someone
who's actually debugged running code, using that data, since it will either work correctly or not! You should,
of course, also perform your own verification of the information before considering it truly reliable; everyone
makes mistakes. If you wish to discuss NTFS, or any other topic, you can email us here.
Note: This page is still under construction . . . .
We are working on EXAMPLES to
show how this data can actually be used!
Our main reason for publishing these notes on NTFS, and indeed much of the information here at The Starman's Realm, is an attempt to alleviate some of the confusion in the forensic community (and others) caused by typo errors, inaccurate statements and even blunders regarding what is available online and in print concerning NT file systems and other relevant data. Furthermore, we believe in using real-world data examples in order to explain a topic. Simply learning 'terminology' or listening to or reading someone's words as they attempt to teach a complex subject can keep many from truly understanding.
First, a few definitions (some words being necessary; others not so much) to help in understanding NTFS:
A file on a computer drive is essentially an artificial container for holding some kind of information. A file's boundaries (within a
larger container often called a volume) are kept track of by its file system.
A file system (NTFS being one of a few well-known types; including FAT32 and ext4) must, of course, also store that boundary information (and any other associated data; such as a file's name and when it was created) somewhere on the same disk drive. NTFS stores this metadata within that same volume.
Metadata refers to data that provides information about other data. In the physical world, the old 'index cards' of a library that could be used to find a book on its shelves (according to the Dewey Decimal, LC or some other classification) also contained a great deal of metadata about each book: The book's author, when it was published, by what printing house(s), how many pages that edition had, etc. etc. A 'list of lists' is another example of metatdata. Metadata is most often found in a structured format which allows one to more easily retrieve some sought after data or to manage data resources.
One of the interesting things about NTFS is that even the instructions and system data used to manage the contents of its file system are also stored as files within its volumes; everything is a file in NTFS. So, NTFS volumes have meta files within them:
In fact, even the 16 sectors of an NTFS partition's Volume Boot Record (or VBR); which always begins at Logical Sector zero (0), is a meta file under NTFS (its file name is: $Boot).
The files in which the structured metadata of a Windows™ NTFS volume are stored each have a dollar-sign ($) as their first character (MFT Record # 5 is not a metafile). Most users are unaware of this, because these files are kept hidden from them in a very special way: Even if the Microsoft® Windows™ OS's "Folder Options" -> "View" tab settings are set to show both hidden and system files, users will never see any of these meta files! And the '$-sign' character has nothing to do with how the OS hides these files. Users can easily create a file with a $-sign as the first character; even files with the metafile names, provided they do not attempt to do so in the root directory, since they would conflict with the files that already exist there. Some examples:
Examples 1. We Can Create '$'-Character Files
Examples 2. Commands Showing NTFS
C:\Documents and Settings\[user]>cd\ C:\>echo "Not an official metafile!" > $MyDfile C:\>del $MyDfile C:\>mkdir $test C:\>cd $test C:\$test>echo "you can easily do this!" > $MFT C:\$test>echo "With any metafile name!" > $LogFile C:\$test>echo "Such as Mft2 too!" > $MFTMirr C:\$test>dir Directory of C:\$test 03/20/2018 06:10 PM 28 $LogFile 03/20/2018 06:09 PM 28 $MFT 03/20/2018 06:11 PM 22 $MFTMirr 3 File(s) 78 bytes C:\$test>cd .. C:\>rmdir /s $test $test, Are you sure (Y/N)? y
The commands above assume you do not have a $MyDfile
file or a $test folder in your C: drive's Root Directory.
Microsoft Windows [Version 6.1.7601] Copyright (c) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. C:\Windows\system32>cd\ C:\>dir /a:h $MFT [/a:h shows Hidden files.] Directory of C:\ Always -> File Not Found C:\>echo "But unable to do this!" > $MFT Access is denied. C:\>echo "In the Root Directory!" > $LogFile Access is denied. C:\>echo "Which shows they exist!" > $MFTMirr Access is denied.
( We used "Run as administrator" Command Prompt. Try
dir /a:s ['system'] or even dir /a:hs ['hidden and system'],
it makes no difference: Always -> File Not Found .)
|The Examples 2 box above shows a Windows 2000 or later OS will always return File Not Found for these NTFS metafiles.|
The fact that a user cannot create these particular files in the Root Directory shows they do exist there; even if you cannot see them. So what exactly keeps the average user from ever seeing these files? The answer is, the code in NTFS.SYS. Only a disk editor such as WinHex or some other forensic tool designed to do so, will allow you to easily view these files. One could of course search for and view the 'raw' bytes of these metafiles using the free hex and disk editor HxD, but that would require both the necessary experience and more time to find them. This screenshot of a partition 'opened' in WinHex shows some of the metafile names in the partition's root directory:
In the window above, we've highlighted a few useful items inside the WinHex display for our study of meatafiles:
1) We point out again that the $Boot file always begins at Logical Sector 0 of the volume /
2) The first 4 bytes of every MFT record entry should always be the ASCII characters: "FILE".
3) When viewing the $MFT file, WinHex shows the record/entry number in focus; note the "(#0)" next to the $MFT file name (in the dark gray area of the display). This indicates the user is viewing the very first record entry of the $MFT file.
4) For every file (or directory) entry in the MFT, its Microsoft Unicode name technically begins 2 bytes preceding (or ahead of) its characters: For example, in the display above, where the $MFT name begins at offset 0xF2, the byte at offset 0xF0 (a 04 in this case) indicates the length of the name; and since it uses only a single byte for its length, that means no Windows NTFS file name can be longer than 255 characters (0xFF = 255). The second byte (a "03") indicates the type of name. It should also be noted that the location of a file name within each MFT record is not always the same! For example, both the $AttrDef and the Root Directory file names in our sample MFT records (see below), begin at offset 0xD8 in MFT record numbers 4 and 5 (see Table 2 below for the file names of the first 16 MFT records): "08 03 24 00 41 00 74 00 74 00 72 00 44 00 65 00 66 00 ..$.A.t.t.r.D.e.f." and "01 03 2E 00 ...." (the actual name within the MFT for the Root Directory being a single 'dot' or period; hex: 0x2E with no $-sign in front of it, though other works sometimes list it that way). Nor will it always be the same location in different volumes for the same record: For example, in the $MFT file on a different drive, we found its Root folder name ('.'; 0x2E) at offset 0x138. In fact, when the contents of an MFT record changes (which happen every time a file is modified or simply read), any number of its attributes may have their locations shifted within that record.
Since 7-Zip is a compression and archival tool, it may surprise many
that it can also be used to view the metafile names in an NT volume's Root Directory provided it's not the volume the Windows OS is currently
Steps for looking at NTFS metafile names under 7-Zip:
1) Open the 7-Zip File Manager.
2) Click on the \\. item. (If you do not see it, then use the Green Up Arrow button until you get to the highest level possible.)
3) Click on an NTFS Volume's Drive Letter. Note: If you try to open the running Windows OS volume (normally the C: drive); or any volume that has a file/folder opened by any process, 7-Zip will display an error message similar to these:
If you cannot open a volume that is not your C: drive, you'll need to make sure there are no running processes accessing that volume. We would recommend using 7-zip immediately after first booting-up your PC.
4) It will take some time for 7-Zip to "Open" all the files in the volume.
5) Locate and click on the folder item titled: [SYSTEM]. 7-zip's display should appear similar to this one:
However, it must be pointed out that unlike WinHex, 7-Zip can not provide any data about the metafiles which exist only inside the MFT (the ones shown with '0' bytes file size in the display above). But it's still quite useful for quickly viewing what metafiles do exist in a volume and inside of a metafile folder; such as "$Extend".
6) To view the contents of any of these typical NTFS Metafiles, an application will need to be selected (we'd recommend HxD). Unfortunately, the latest Windows 10 updates have become so strict in regards to protecting these files, it is no longer possible to view their contents using 7-zip and another application!
As others have noted, apart from the version numbers listed in the table below, if we consider all the Windows service packs and updates which have affected the NTFS.SYS file over the course of its history, then "numerous versions of NTFS exist." [In the future, we'll be listing many of the different versions of NTFS.SYS and various details about each file.]
Windows NT 3.1
Windows NT 3.51
Windows NT 4.0
Due to the OS version being NT
Since Win2k was thought of as NT 5,
Per logic above, this NT version has
*Somewhat understandable, since the same system file on an NT 4, Win 2000 and Win XP|
install has file version numbers: 4.0.13x1.x, 5.00.2195.xxxx and 5.1.2600.x, respectively.
But these numbers are indicative of the OS version, not the NT file system version.
And it has officially remained at version 3.1 ever since Windows XP was released, even though many new features were added in 2008, and at other times. The fsutil file system management command-line utility, first included with Windows XP, can be used to display a volume's NTFS version by entering: fsutil fsinfo ntfsinfo X: ; where X is a drive letter. The last screen shown here is from a Windows™ 10 machine (which shows fsutil itself has new features):
fsutil is a complex utility which will be described in
First, note that (except for NTFS v.1.0 and 1.1 volumes) the last sector of an NTFS partition is always reserved for a copy of the volume's Boot Sector (often referred to as the Backup Boot Sector). Everything is a file in an NTFS volume, but there is no entry in the MFT for the BBS (Backup Boot Sector), because it is outside of the NTFS volume. So, an NTFS Volume is always 1 sector less than its partition: SizeOf_NTFS_Partition - (1 sector) = SizeOf_NTFS_Volume. This is also true for NTFS volumes on GUID Partition Table (GPT) disks.
Why is a volume's Boot Sector critical enough to warrant having its own backup copy? Because it stores the locations of both the $MFT and $MFTMirr files, and without access to the Master File Table, the operating system cannot boot! For example, after zeroing-out the location of only the $MFT file in a PC's Volume Boot Sector (at offsets 0x30 - 0x37), when we tried to boot the OS again, the PC displayed:
The BIOS Parameter Block (or BPB) of an NTFS Boot Sector also contains ... (for now, if necessary, you can find further information about the NTFS Boot Sector here) ... more to follow.
How Large is an NTFS Cluster? Few today will ever encounter an NTFS Cluster that is not 4 KiB (4096 bytes), since the exceptions are: 1) When working with an NT 3.1 through NT 4.0 install volume, because those partitions always began as FAT16 and were converted to NTFS after using the FAT16 default cluster sizes, 2) Because NTFS volumes under 2 GiB; even for Windows 2000 and Windows XP, did in fact have smaller cluster sizes [We will be adding detailed notes on this in the near future!] and 3) The next change in the default cluster size is for volumes over 16 TiB (it defaults to 8 KiB).
Next, we need to ask: For what Windows OS version? Yes, what OS version, not what NTFS version! We have identified basically three different layouts, so the question could be stated as: "From what NT OS layout era is the volume?" Though technically the 'layout' depends on what format code was used under an OS to create the volume, in this regard the NT systems generally fall into these three groups (or eras):
NTFS Layout Eras
Includes these Windows Operating Systems
The beginning of NTFS (Betas and Windows NT 3.1), Windows NT 3.51, Windows NT 4.0 (and its Service Packs 1 - 6), all of their Server and Advanced Server versions and the NT 5.0 Betas which became Windows 2000 (and its SP1 - SP4).
Windows XP (and SP1 - SP3), Windows Server 2003 (and SP1, SP2 and R2; R='Release', there was no R1) and Windows Vista (both the 32-bit and 64-bit versions).
Windows 7 (including its 32-bit version), Windows 8 and 8.1 and Windows 10; as well as the various Server 2008, Server 2012 and Server 2016 versions.
NOTE: The three diagrams below (Figures 3 through 5) are not to scale; which means the size of the boxes used for the VBR, $MFT, Mft2, BBS and the whole partition are not in true proportion to each other. The VBR and BBS are, respectively, only 8192 and 512 bytes, and Mft2 is only 4096 bytes long. The size of the $MFT file will vary. If we attempted to show these areas to scale, some of the boxes couldn't be a single pixel wide even for a rather small partition.
1) Under Windows operating systems of the first era, the beginning of the $MFT file is found either immediately after or near to (relatively speaking) the Volume Boot Record (VBR). When an unformatted drive area had a new NTFS volume created under the early systems (NT 3.1, 3.5, 3.51 and their Servers), the $MFT file was placed in clusters immediately following the VBR. This is why much of the literature concerning the NT File System shows the MFT at the beginning of a volume. For Windows NT 4.0 and 2000, it's normal to find a gap of 16 sectors between the VBR and $MFT. On the OS install volumes from this era, we have seen the $MFT begin at Logical Sectors ranging from only 32 to 202,915 (this is the largest 'gap' from the VBR we found; it's possible a larger one exists). It should also be noted that no matter where the $MFT file began, the $MFTMirr file was created in the center of the volume.
A typical layout for a Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000 partition from this era would look like this:
Unfortunately, Microsoft did not update their own diagrams used in various documents after they made changes to NTFS, so authors continued copying what became incorrect data for the next layout era of Windows operating systems:
2) With the release of Windows XP, although the $MFTMirr file was still being created in the center of its volumes, the $MFT file began to appear in a specific location: At LCN (Logical Cluster Number) 786,432 (or 0x0C0000 in hex). So, what happens if I create a volume that is very close to or even smaller than LCN 786,432?
NOTE: For any volume which has simply been 'expanded,' such as the Windows XP C: volume shown in Figure 2a above (we manually altered its partition table entry and the data in its VBR to expand its volume), the "Mft2" ($MFTMirr file) will no longer be at the center of the volume.
3) The Era 3 layout (as we're calling it), began with the release of Windows 7. The $MFT file still begins at LCN 0x0C0000, but the
"Mft2" ($MFTMirr file) is now placed immediately after the VBR ($Boot); at Logical Sector 16. That is LCN 0x02.
The fsutil display from a new Windows 10 laptop (see Figure 2b. above) shows precisely these locations:
Mft Start Lcn : 0x00000000000c0000 and Mft2 Start Lcn: 0x0000000000000002.
NOTE: The locations for the $MFT and $MFTMirr (or "Mft2") files as described in all three of the NTFS Era Layouts above are for partitions and volumes that have not been altered by 3rd-party partition or defragmenting tools (a worthwhile third-party tool can in fact move the location of both these files), nor by the Windows OS itself (Vista or later); which has limited Shrink and Expand capabilities: Windows can "Shrink" NTFS volumes to the point where Mft2 ($MFTMirr file), or in the case of an Era 3 volume, the $MFT file, end up being at the end of a volume, since the Microsoft Shrink feature cannot move either one of these files from their original location. It may be true that Windows Shrink will not move some or all of the other NTFS metafiles as well. Thus, the reason Era 2 partitions, with the $MFTMirr file located in the middle of the volume, cannot be shrunk by Windows Disk Management more than about half (1/2) of their original size!
The most important file within an NTFS partition (apart from any code which helps an operating system manage it) is the $MFT (Master File Table). Why? Because it's basically the master index to the location and size of every other file within the whole volume. In fact, it's so important, there's a backup copy of the MFT's most important records called the $MFTMirr file. (Note that $MFTMirr is not a complete backup copy of the $MFT file! In fact, it contains only the $MFT, $MFTMirr, $LogFile and $Volume entries; which are the first 4 records of the MFT.)
Note: If a file's size is small enough, NTFS will store its entire contents only within its MFT entry! This would be true, for example, for many .ini files. For 1 KiB NTFS record lengths (the norm), files of about 700 bytes or less are normally found only within the $MFT file. Under NTFS, these are known as resident data attribute records. Many directories which have only a few entries may also be stored as resident records within the MFT. (The various attributes of MFT record entries will be explained further below.)
Note: Each normal file record inside an MFT file, including an entry for the $MFT file itself; which is always the first record (ID # 0), begins with the header: FILE at offsets 00 - 03. And the ID # of the entry is found at offsets 0x2C through 0x2F.
The first 16 records of every NTFS Volume's MFT (Master File Table) are always reserved for the same metafiles and the Root Directory, and are always found in this order:
Master File Table
which contains all the records of every file on the volume;|
MFT Mirror File
|Backup copy of the $MFT file's most
The $MFT, $MFTMirr, $LogFile and $Volume records.
|The Log File might be useful in recovering
files after power|
losses or OS lock-ups.
|Among other data, contains the volume's name.|
|The Attribute Definition Table. See Attributes.|
|Contains an index of
all the files and folders in the Root Directory.|
Note: It's Filename is a single dot (0x2E) character. Technically,
not a '$-character' metafile, but as an index, it is meta data, so it
(as are all other folders) is treated by the MFT as if it were a file;
after all, everything in the NT File System is a file.
|Allocation status of every cluster on the Volume.|
|16 sectors always reserved; boot code size is only about half that.|
Bad Cluster File
|Listing of all 'bad clusters' on the volume.|
|[Still under construction.]|
|[Still under construction.]|
|[Still under construction.]|
Reserved by NTFS
|These 4 records are reserved by the file
Their function(s) are unknown at this time.
The first 48 bytes of each MFT record, comprise its "header" which contains:
Always: FILE (or Magic Number = 0x454C4946;
Offset to 'Update Sequence...Array' (from start of FILE header);
Size in WORDs of the 'Update Sequence Number and Array' (USA)
$LogFile Sequence Number (or LSN)
Hard Link Count
Offset to first Attribute
Actual Size of this FILE Record.
Allocated Size of this FILE Record; normally 0x400 (1 KiB; 2 sectors).
File Reference to Base FILE Record
Next Attribute ID
Used to align to 4-byte boundary.
MFT Record Number (since NTFS version 3.1)
There's a sample $MFT file's first 17 records here; in both binary and hex editor view (text) format. This is from a Windows XP Professional OS install on a real physical disk drive, and includes a BAAD record.
Within the $MFT file, everything, including all data, is an attribute. The $AttrDef file contains a list of all the attributes available for use in that volume. Each attribute has a type number associated with it which we've highlighted in this $AttrDef Sample File. The attributes found in this file are as follows:
0x10 ( 16)
0x20 ( 32)
0x30 ( 48)
0x40 ( 64)
0x50 ( 80)
0x60 ( 96)
Note: ID # 0xF0 is not defined on this volume.
Text] For example, The Complete Guide to Windows Server 2008, John Savill (Pearson Education, 2008), which was invaluable to many admins working
with this server, still had this error (on the 2nd page of Chapter 5): "The MFT2 is a mirror of the first 16 records of the MFT, which describe
the metadata files themselves and are, therefore, most vital." Well, that number (16) is incorrect. $MFTMirr is a copy
of only the first 4 records of the MFT. Whoever wrote '16' probably was thinking about the fact the first 16 records of the
MFT are always the same metafile records; and (expected?) that all 16 should be copied. But no one has seen a Microsoft $MFTMirr that does, even on
a Windows 2008 Server.
Microsoft® documentation has had its share of errors which, unfortunately, continue to be perpetuated by students copying the errors into their projects! One example, which also influenced trojan and malware authors can be found using the Google search terms: "how ntfs works" "server 2003" "ntldlr.dll" site:microsoft.com (keep the quote marks around the first 3 terms). Then look for ntldlr.dll on that page. Well, there is no such Windows OS file as ntldr.dll! The file's name is only: ntldr (it has no .dll extension). Some malware authors saw this and used the name for malicious code (variations on other real system file names have also been used many times for trojans and other malware). So, just because you see something in IBM®, Microsoft® or some other large software and/or hardware company's documentation does not mean it must be correct; verify it first.
2[Return to Text] "Systems" plural, because both the linux community and Apple® developers along with a number of commercial software houses like Paragon Technologie GmbH and Tuxera, each have their own versions of NTFS drivers for many different OSs; all of which may be helpful in understanding and/or implementing successful NTFS drivers, but not necessarily true of Microsoft® drivers. For example, one can read about NTFS-3G here and various versions of Apple's NTFS drivers here. Our main focus on this page will be verifiable data concerning the NTFS versions of Microsoft® Windows™.
3[Return to Text] Prior to Windows 2000 (sometimes referred to as 'NT 5.0'), it was possible to see the size of an individual NTFS metafile by performing the "dir /a:h <metafile name>" command. It functioned as shown below under Windows NT 3.1 through Windows NT 4.0 (SP-6) and its Servers. For example:
Until Microsoft added the fsutil
4[Return to Text] The NTFS.SYS File System Driver contains the names of all the special "$-character" system files and treats them as specially Protected files, returning ACCESS DENIED to any system code (such as Windows File Explorer) acting on behalf of users or even Administrators which simply attempts to view their names. So these hidden, system NT metafiles can never be listed in the Windows Root Directory, even at a Command Prompt; let alone be accessed for reading. This means any tool (possibly apart from Microsoft's own utilities; like fsutil) that does view these special files, must be accessing these files and their data outside of the usual OS code which would normally call NTFS.SYS to access any NT files.
Text] Note: You can download and make use of WinHex from here with limited
functionality. You may evaluate WinHex free of charge for 45 days without licensing it. However, in this mode WinHex will not save files larger than
200 KB, nor write to disk sectors or edit virtual memory: So you could, for example, save a copy of your MBR and VBR sectors, but not be able to
write them back to the disk drive. Licensed copies of WinHex include automatic color highlighting of various bytes inside $MFT records, but this
feature is disabled in the free demo which will also sometimes show this reminder:
6[Return to Text] The exception would be if one or more of the records had an unreadable sector(s), in which case, the Windows OS (or more specifically, running an error scan with a utility such as chkdsk) will replace the "FILE" header with a "BAAD" header, and all of its remaining bytes will be zero-filled ('00' bytes only); with the exception of the last two bytes in each sector called the 'Update Sequence Number'. (Note: We've included a BAAD record from a physical drive running Windows XP Professional in our $MFT Sample Metafile Records; it's the last record, MFT # 16, in Sample 1. For reference, see the "BAAD" entry in the "Glossary" of the work NTFS Documentation by Richard Russon and Yuval Fledel, where it states: "... it [referring to Check Disk] marks the item with the magic number 'BAAD', and fill [sic] it with zeroes (except for a short at the end of each sector...)" By "short", we take them to mean a USN (Update Sequence Number). It is rather unfortunate that few, if any, other works contain these details of how the file system should function when 'bad sectors' on a disk drive which correspond to an MFT record or an Index Block are encountered.
7[Return to Text] The name types are: 01 - Indicates a LONG filename, 02 - Indicates a SHORT filename, 03 - Indicates a LONG filename that also meets the requirements for a SHORT filename.
8[Return to Text] 7-Zip happens to be one of the best free 'Windows' programs available on the Net (in our opinion). We have not only used it to extract files and compress them into the standard archives (BZ, GZ, TAR, ZIP and of course 7z), but also extract both files and data from proprietary archives, emails and whole file systems! (Examples: Not only archives such as: ARJ, RAR, Microsoft CAB files, but also file systems and system related data: Apple™ DMG, Linux EXT and SquashFS, ISOs, UDFs, FAT, HFS, NTFS, GPT and UEFI drives and image files, Microsoft CHM, MSI, VHD and WIM files, and more.). 7-zip is one of our go to tools when trying to view whatever is inside some obscured data, quickly! You can download the free (GNU licensed) 7-zip from here.
9[Return to Text] John Savill, The Complete Guide to Windows Server 2008 (Pearson Education, 2008), Chapter 5, 2nd page. This author may have also had in mind all the other versions of NTFS as mentioned in our note 2 above.
10[Return to Text] For the Windows NT 3.1 (NTFS v. 1.0) through Windows NT 3.51 (v. 1.1) OS versions, we do find copies of their NTFS "Boot Sector" in the middle of the volume, immediately preceding the $MFTMirr file. Furthermore, the $Boot (MFT #7) entries actually reference this cluster in a "2nd run" of the "Run List" in the MFT record's $DATA (0x80) attribute! The "1st run" is a link to the full 16-sector Boot Record at the beginning of each volume.
11[Return to Text] These lists do not include 'Embedded Devices', cancelled versions, such as, Nashville, NepTune or Odyssey, nor any Appliances or Mobile devices. See: List of Microsoft Windows Versions and its links for a complete list of all Windows versions and editions.
12[Return to Text] For example, on Microsoft's Technet page: How NTFS Works which states that it applies to the Windows 2003 Servers, the diagram "Organization of an NTFS Volume" not only implies the MFT starts immediately after the 'Boot Sector' which it no longer did, but also that the $MFTMirr file (called "Master File Table Copy" in the diagram) was at the end of the volume, instead of its center. And there's an example (from 2007) where a university computer science teacher in 'Silicon Valley' had copied that diagram word-for-word, elongated it (stretched it out) and titled it "NTFS partition structure" (which probably confused some of his students); see COEN252/152NTFS. In reality, these diagrams should look more like this one:
13[Return to Text] Curiously, for volumes having 4 KiB clusters, an LCN of 0x0C0000 (4 zeros) is also a logical byte-offset of 0xC0000000 (7 zeros) bytes, so don't confuse, or be confused by, the two values; this is only a coincidence. (Well, sort of... A 4 KiB; i.e., a 4096-byte, cluster is 0x1000 bytes in hex, so it's easy to see why multiplying LCN 0xC0,000 by 0x1,000 bytes/cluster = 0xC0,000,000 bytes).
Updated: 30 JAN 2018 (30.01.2018); 3 FEB 2018 (03.02.2018); 5 FEB 2018 (05.02.2018); 6 FEB 2018 (06.02.2018);
7 FEB 2018 (07.02.2018); 11 FEB 2018 (11.02.2018); 12 FEB 2018 (12.02.2018); 17 FEB 2018 (17.02.2018); 19 FEB 2018 (19.02.2018); 23 FEB 2018 (23.02.2018);
5 MAR 2018 (05.03.2018); 6 MAR 2018 (06.03.2018); 9 MAR 2018 (09.03.2018); 11 MAR 2018 (11.03.2018); 21 MAR 2018 (21.03.2018); 5 APR 2018 (05.04.2018).
Last Update: 19 April 2018 (19.04.2018).
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